On the topic of Alexander Hamilton and slavery, the most thorough and accurate research to date is that by Michael E. Newton and Philo Hamilton entitled, “Opening a Door to Their Emancipation’ – Alexander Hamilton and Slavery,” Version 3.0, published December 21, 2020. The study concludes that there is no conclusive evidence that Alexander Hamilton ever owned enslaved individuals. The facts, including the census of 1800, record no enslaved persons belonging to Alexander Hamilton’s household. As the article notes, “In addition to not owning slaves, he actively sought to abolish the evil institution in his own state. Rather than being an ‘enslaver,’ Hamilton opposed slavery, advocated for manumission, emancipated one, two, or perhaps more enslaved people, and supported enslaved and freed Blacks to the extent that his limited means allowed.”

Read Michael E. Newton and Philo Hamilton’s article (48 pages)

Newton and Philo Hamilton’s article was written in response to the following article by Jessie Serfilippi, which contains numerous inaccuracies.

Read Serfilippi’s article (28 pages)

Serfilippi’s article was picked up by the New York Times, which did not examine the accuracy of her claims.

Read the New York Times article here.


After reviewing the above publications, the AHA Society wrote a statement.

Read the AHA Society Board statement.

“The Evidence for Hamilton Against Slavery” – A video publication on Hamilton and slavery by Marianne Als, based on the article “Opening a Door to Their Emancipation” by Michael E. Newton and Philo Hamilton. The author approached the AHA Society for feedback prior to its publication.

Hamilton Descendant Douglas Hamilton interviewed by the press – Read the interview with Hamilton’s direct descendant, Douglas Hamilton, who addresses the allegations that Hamilton was an enslaver.

California Chapter President Pooja Nair has written about diverse topics covering Alexander Hamilton’s attitudes and actions on race and slavery. Read articles from her series below. Note: By clicking on the links below, you will be taken to a separate website, It’s Hamiltime!, where the articles were originally published.

Hamilton’s Views on Race and Slavery Series

  1. An Introduction
    Reflection on Paul Finkelmann’s article on Thomas Jefferson’s views on race and slavery
  2. Enlisting Black Soliders in the Continental Army
    Hamilton’s plan to raise regiments of black soldiers, who would receive their freedom in exchange for their service
  3. The Haitian Revolution
    Hamilton’s support of the Haitian Revolution and his assistance to the new Haitian republic
  4. Indian Policy and the Hamilton-Oneida Academy
    Alexander Hamilton’s role in founding an academy for both Indian and white students
  5. Jay’s Treaty and the Camillus Letters
    Hamilton’s stance against putting blacks freed by the British back into slavery


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